The Hamburg Declaration on Adult Education in 1997 has defined adult education as «the whole complex of the gradual process of formal or otherwise of training in which people are in terms of the society to which they belong, adults develop their abilities, enrich their knowledge and improve technical and professional qualification, or use them in a new direction to meet their needs and those of their society».
Education — is not just a class with a teacher, a multilateral process of acquiring knowledge and moral values. Currently, UNESCO officially recognizes three forms of education:
— Formal, that is, extending in special educational institutions and ending to recognized certificates and diplomas — it includes and the usual system of vocational education and various training courses and training.
— Informal, which can take place anywhere and does not necessarily lead to the issuance of a diploma. These include various types of clubs, clubs, lectures, section. This is a form, properly speaking, and engaged organizations and cultural institutions. Just say that in developed countries the non-formal education is on a par with the formal, and often higher than its most important, because it is there one finds the optimal conditions for creative development of his personality.
— Informal, that is disorganized and often has no purposeful nature acquisition of information through libraries, media, socializing with friends, going to the theater, museum or exhibition.
Technology of adult education — a system of science-based andragogical learning principles, the implementation of which a high degree of assurance leads to achieving the goal of education.
Basic principles of andragogy include:
Principle of the priority of self-study for its realization requires preliminary preparation — preparation of training programs, selection and reproduction of teaching material, the creation of educational computer programs. This principle allows a leisurely acquaintance with educational materials, memorization of terms, concepts, classifications, understanding the processes and technologies of their performance.
Principle of joint activity of the learner with students and teachers in the learning process. The starting point of the learning process is to identify the needs of students. Interview training, group discussions can detect these needs. It is necessary to clarify the four points of view on the subject of study: the student himself (or more students in the study group), its leader, the subordinate and the partner (the person with whom the student is associated production constraints).
Principle of using life experiences (especially social and professional), practical knowledge and skills as the student training base and a source of new knowledge formalization. The principle is based on active teaching methods to stimulate creative work of students. On the other hand, attention should be paid to individual work — work such as writing essays, case studies (in some specified pattern), the creation of teaching diagrams and descriptions. Individual work is in the dialogue of the teacher and the student, for the mutual transfer of information and knowledge. This is carried out formalization of empirical knowledge.
Principle of correction of outdated practices and attitudes, impeding the development of new knowledge. It can be used as a professional, and social experience, which is in conflict with the requirements of the time, with corporate objectives. For example, a highly qualified specialist can be configured to individual work on hiding personal knowledge, acceptance of new prospective workers, seeing them as a threat to their personal well-being. In such cases, the conversation, the belief in the usual insolvency, the creation of new points of view, opening new prospects.
Principle of individual approach to learning is based on personal needs, taking into account the socio-psychological characteristics of the individual, the presence of free time, financial resources, etc. The approach is based on an individual assessment of the individual student, the analysis of his professional activity, social status and the nature of relationships in the team. Interviews, questionnaires, tests allow us to construct a socio-psychological portrait of the student.
Principle clectivity training. The principle of representation is the learner the freedom to choose the content, forms, methods, tools, time, time, place of learning, assessment of learning outcomes.
The principle of reflexivity. The principle is based on a conscious relation to student learning, which is the main part of the self-motivated learner.
Principle of demand for learning outcomes. First of all, the demand for students acquired knowledge and skills activities. Based on this principle, before the planning and organization of training needs analysis of the activities, which will formulate the goals and objectives of education.
Principle of systematic training. It is that the objectives and content of training its forms, methods, means of training and evaluation. Consistency can be understood as systematic, ie continuous or regular training, and taking into account the results of previous studies and new training needs.
Principle of mainstreaming the learning outcomes (their early use in practice). The fulfillment of this principle is provided by the previous principles of the system, the practical relevance of learning outcomes of an individual approach, the use of accumulated experience.